Posts Tagged ‘Romans’

Free Ebook- Imputation of Righteousness & Covenant Theology by Walter Chantry

December 11, 2015 Leave a comment

(An Overview of Romans 5:12-21)

Paul’s great theme in Romans is righteousness, in particular the righteousness of God. “I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes…for in the gospel the righteousness of God is revealed,” (Romans 1:16, 17). The Christian gospel is about righteousness.

I. An Indictment Against Humanity

Paul began explaining the gospel by telling us that “the wrath of God is being revealed from heaven against all the ungodliness and unrighteousness of men,” (Romans 1:18). His point was not that if the people of the Roman Empire did not repent, that God’s wrath would fall on them. His message was that the wrath of God was already active and evidently upon them. At a time still future when he wrote, God’s wrath would be seen as the Vandals battered down their gates and plundered their cities. But long before this terrifying, destructive blow, God’s wrath was to be seen in His allowing the empire to wallow in moral filth and debauchery. He permitted Romans to corrupt themselves and to follow every lustful desire of their hearts without restraint. This was the wrath of God in its early stages, already fallen as Paul’s letter was written.


Download the ebook here. There is also a Spanish version here.


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Free Ebook-Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans (9-16)

November 17, 2014 Leave a comment

romans916_0by Dr. J Ligon Duncan

Available in ePub and Kindle .mobi formats

One of America’s most renowned Presbyterian theologians, currently Chancellor of the Reformed Theological Seminary, delivered these sermons in 2001-2002. There are nearly 50 sermons contained in these concluding 8 chapters of sermon manuscripts. If you missed them, click here for the first 8 chapters >>> Expositon to the Epistle to the Romans 1-8.

Posted with the kind permission of Dr. J. Ligon Duncan, As preached at First Presbyterian Church, Jackson, Mississippi. Lightly edited. These are transcribed messages from First Presbyterian Church, and the reader should presume any error to be with the webmaster/transcriber/editor rather than with the original speaker..
Table of Contents

The Righteousness of God For Salvation – Romans 9: 1-5
Can God’s Promises Fail? – Romans 9: 6-13
Isn’t It Unfair for God to Choose Some and Not Others? – Romans 9:14-18
How Can God Condemn If We Can’t Resist His Will? – Romans 9:19-23
God’s Purpose to Display His Mercy Against the Backdrop of Evil – Romans 9:22-29
Why Would Someone Reject Salvation? – Romans 9:30-33

The Two Ways of Righteousness – Romans 10:1-13
Faith Comes by Hearing – Romans 10:14-21

A Remnant Believes, Just as Promised – Romans 11:1-5
The Hardening of Israel – Romans 11:6-10
A Hardening for Mercy’s Sake – Romans 11:11-16
A Warning Against Arrogance – Romans 11:17-22
All Israel Will Be Saved – Romans 11:23-27
A Glimpse Into the Decree – Romans 11:28-32
Let Us Love and Sing and Wonder – Romans 11:33-36

A Call to Give Yourself to God – Romans 12:1-2
A Call to Humility and Service – Romans 12:3-8
A Call to Love and Other-centeredness – Romans 12:9-10
A Call to Diligence – Romans 12:11-16
A Call to Seek Peace – Romans 12:17-21

A Christian Response to the 2012 Elections – Romans 13:1-7
A Call to Fulfill the Law Through Love – Romans 13:8-10
A Call to Live in Light of the Coming End – Romans 13:11-14

A Warning Against Judging Brothers (1) – Romans 14:1-12
A Warning Against Judging Brothers (2) – Romans 14:1-12
On Christian Freedom – Romans 14:13-23

Accept One Another – Romans 15:7-13
The Goal of Paul’s Mission – Romans 15:14-21
Our Concern, Desire, Purpose, and Fruit – Romans 15:22-29
A Call to Prayer – Romans 15:30-33

Phoebe and the Ministry of Women in the Early Church – Romans 16:1-2
Ministry in the Family of God – Romans 16:3-16
A Warning Against Schismatics and an Expression of Hope – Romans 16:17-20
Greeting to the Church and Glory to God – on Romans 16:21-27


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Free Ebook-Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans

November 5, 2014 1 comment

romans18bby Dr. J. Ligon Duncan

Available in ePub and Kindle .mobi formats

Posted with the kind permission of Dr. J. Ligon Duncan, As preached at First Presbyterian Church, Jackson, Mississippi. Lightly edited. These are transcribed messages from First Presbyterian Church, and the reader should presume any error to be with the webmaster/transcriber/editor rather than with the original speaker..

One of America’s most renowned Presbyterian theologians, currently Chancellor of the Reformed Theological Seminary, delivered these sermons in 2000-2001. There are over 50 sermons in the first eight chapter alone and, Lord willing we will be posting chapters 9-16 soon.




Table of Contents

Greetings from an Apostle – Romans 1:1-7
Paul’s Prayer Report – Romans 1:8-10
Paul’s Purpose to Preach – Romans 1:11-15
Paul’s Good News (The Theme of Romans) – Romans 1:16-17
We Have No Excuse – Romans 1:18-20
We Know God, But Don’t Glorify Him – Romans 1:21-23
God Gave Them Over (1) – Romans 1:24-25
God Gave Them Over (2) – Romans 1:26-27
God Gave Them Over (3) – Romans 1:28-32

We Have No Excuse – Romans 2:1-3
Contempt for God’s Kindness – Romans 2:4
God Will Judge Justly – Romans 2:5-11
God’s Righteous Judgment on All – Romans 2:12-16
The Jew’s Confidence Empty – Romans 2:17-20
The Jew’s Failure – Romans 2:21-24
The Difference Between Inward and Outward Righteousness – Romans 2:25-29

Objection Overruled (1) – Romans 3:1-4
Objection Overruled (2) – Romans 3:5-8
All Are Under Sin – Romans 3:9-18
The Law Can’t Save You – Romans 3:19-20
The Righteousness Which Comes by Faith (1) – Romans 3:21-26
Justification by Grace Through Faith – Romans 3:21-26
God, in the Gospel of His Son – Romans 3:21-26
Justification by Grace Through Faith (2) – Romans 3:21-26
The Instrument by Which We Receive the Righteousness of God: Faith – Romans 3:27-31
Faith Alone – Romans 3:27-31
The Implication of Justification – Romans 3:27-31

The Bible Says Abraham Was Justified by Faith! – Romans 4:1-3
David Understood Justification by Faith – Romans 4:4-8
Faith and the Covenant Sign of Circumcision – Romans 4:9-12
Faith and the Law – Romans 4:13-15
Faith, Grace and the Spiritual Seed – Romans 4:16-17
Abraham’s Faith and Ours – Romans 4:18-25

Justification By Faith Means Peace with God – Romans 5:1-2
Justification By Faith Means the Ability to Rejoice in Suffering – Romans 5:3-5
Justification By Faith Flows from the Love of God – Romans 5:6-8
Justification By Faith Means Freedom From God’s Wrath – Romans 5:9-11
The Broken Covenant of Works Brought Death into the World – Romans 5:12-14
The Covenant of Grace Stands in Bold Contrast to the Broken Covenant of Works – Romans 5:15-17
The Parallels Between the Broken Covenant of Works and the Covenant of Grace – Romans 5:18-19
The Law, the Covenant of Works, and Grace – Romans 5:20-21
Grace Reigns in Righteousness – Romans 5:21

United to Christ – Romans 6:1-7
Living in Christ – Romans 6:8-14
Under Grace – Romans 6:15-18
Slaves of Righteousness – Romans 6:19-23

The Newness of the Spirit – Romans 7:1-6
What Should We Think of the Law? – Romans 7:7-12
The Believer’s Struggle with Sin – Romans 7:13-25

Delivered by the Spirit by Death of Christ – Romans 8:1-4
Flesh and Spirit – Romans 8:5-11
Children of God – Romans 8:12-17
Present Suffering/ Future Glory – Romans 8:18-25
The Spirit Intercedes for Us – Romans 8:26-27
The Purpose of God – Romans 8:28-39
God is for Us, So Who is Against Us? – Romans 8:31-32
God Has Justified Us, So Who Can Condemn Us? – Romans 8:33-34
More than Conquerors – Romans 8:35-39



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God gives sinners over to the lusts of their hearts

August 11, 2014 2 comments

rcsproul.jpgIn the first chapter of Romans, God “gives sinners over to the lusts of their hearts.” What does it mean for God to give someone over to sin? Is this giving over active or passive?

What does it mean that God gives someone over to his sin? We find this not only in the first chapter of Romans but also in the Old Testament. Jeremiah warned the people of Israel that this was exactly what their punishment would be, that God was not going to forbear with them forever but that there would come a time when he would give them up. There would be a point when he would give them over to their sin.

Early in Genesis, at the time of the Flood, we are warned that the Spirit of God does not strive endlessly with men. God is patient, but his long-suffering is designed to give us time to come to ourselves, to repent, to acknowledge him, and to be restored to fellowship with him. But at the same time, we are warned that that forbearance does not go on forever and that there can come a point in our obstinate refusal to repent and to respond to God when he will say it’s too late and will abandon us to our sin, withholding from us his saving grace. That’s a very terrifying thing to consider.

The idea of giving a person over to his sin is a significant part of the final chapters of the book of Revelation, in which we read of John’s vision of the inner sanctum of heaven and of the last judgment. We’re told that those who have responded to Christ receive marvelous benefits, but those who have obstinately endured in their refusal to repent receive judgment at the hands of God. God says, “Let him who is wicked be wicked still.” There’s kind of a poetic justice here. To the people who want to be wicked and refuse to restrain themselves in their sin, God says, “I’m not going to restrain you anymore. I’m going to take the restraints away. I’ll take the leash off, give you your freedom. I’ll let you do exactly what you want to do. It’ll be to your everlasting destruction; it’ll be to your dishonor and to your ultimate dismay, but if that’s what you want, I’ll give you over to it.”

Is this giving over active or passive? It’s active in the sense that God acts to do it. God actually does give a person over to that person’s own desires. It’s passive in that God remains passive toward that person’s self-destruction.


R. C. Sproul-Now That’s a Good Question Page 165

Commentary on Romans 8:1

Chapter 8

C. We have victory over the flesh through the indwelling Spirit:


This introduction is from Robert Haldane:

“This chapter presents a glorious display of the power of Divine grace, and of the provision which God has made for the consolation of His people. While the Apostle had proved, in the sixth, that his previous doctrine gave no license to believers to continue in sin, he had still kept in view his main purpose of establishing their free justification. In the seventh he had prosecuted the same object, declaring that by their marriage with Christ they were delivered from the law as a covenant of life or death, while he vindicated its character, use, and authority. In this chapter, he continues the subject of justification, and resumes that of the believer’s assurance of his salvation, of which he had spoken in the fifth, establishing it on new grounds; and from the whole train of his argument from the commencement of the Epistle, he now draws the general conclusion, that to them who are in Christ Jesus there is no condemnation. While this could not have been accomplished by the law, he shows that it had been affected by the incarnation of the Son of God, by whom the law has been fulfilled for all who are one with Him as members of His body. Paul next points out the difference of character between those who, being in their natural state under the law and under sin, are carnally-minded; and those who, being renewed by grace, in whom the law has been fulfilled, are spiritually-minded. The condition of the former is death, that of the latter life and peace. Of these last he proceeds, through the remainder of the chapter, to assert the high privileges and absolute security.

Those who are spiritually-minded have the Spirit of Christ, and possess spiritual life. Although their bodies must return to the dust, they shall be raised up again. They are led by the Spirit; they are the sons of God, and in His service are delivered from a spirit of bondage. They look to Him as their Father; are heirs of God and joint-heirs with Jesus Christ. To encourage believers to sustain the sufferings to which, while in this world, they are exposed, the most varied and abundant consolations are exhibited. Their salvation is declared to have taken its rise in the eternal counsels of God, by whom, through all its steps, it is carried into effect. Their condemnation, then, is impossible; for who shall condemn those whom God justifieth, — for whom Christ died, and rose, and intercedes? The Apostle concludes by defying the whole universe to separate believers from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord. In this manner he follows out, in this chapter, what had been his grand object through all the preceding part of the Epistle.” [20]


Rom 8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.


The word “therefore” does not mark or draw a conclusion just from the few verses that preceded this verse, but is the conclusion of the first seven chapters of this epistle. Paul has shown that believers are dead to the law and married to another by the substitutionary sacrifice of Christ. Not only that, but God has justified us by faith in Christ, who bore our sins, so that we have been declared legally just, by an imputed righteousness. Thus there is now no condemnation to them who are in Christ. The Greek word used here for “condemnation” occurs only three times in the New Testament and every instance is in Romans [5:16, 18]. This word is the opposite of the word justification. It is a judicial word signifying the verdict of the guilt and the penalty that verdict demands.

Since the sins of those who are in Christ have been paid for by Christ and his righteousness has been imputed to them, then they can never again be condemned before God’s judgment seat, though they sin again. No sin that the believer could commit will ever reverse the decision that was made in their case. Romans 8:33-39 will clarify what I have just said. Also Ephesians 1:7 states: “In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace;” We have forgiveness of sins according to the riches of God’s grace and since God’s grace is a storehouse of grace that is without measure, then we could never exhaust it.

The words “to them which are in Christ Jesus” mean those who have been born again and have been adopted into the family by the regenerating power of the Holy Ghost. Those that have been given a new or second birth are not condemned before God’s judgment seat. This is in contrast to all those who do not know him. As we shown in Romans 1 that all Gentiles are condemned before God and in Romans 2 all Jews are condemned before God. In Romans 3 Paul declared that all were condemned before God, but those who are in Christ Jesus are no longer condemned, because Christ is their Surety. He paid their penalty for their sins and his righteousness has been given to them.

The later part that states: “who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit” is not found in the most ancient manuscripts and is thought by many scholars today to be interpolated. To interpolate means to add to a text in order to alter or corrupt the meaning of the text. But even though I do not believe it to be part of the actual text, I will still comment on this portion of scripture.

Many interpret this to mean that those Christians who somehow live a complete holy life with no sin will be those who are not condemned before God. But this teaching does great damage to the doctrine of justification by faith alone. We are not justified by our works, but are justified by faith in Christ. I am not saying that faith has no good works, but we that are born again and regenerated by the power of the Spirit are not trying to be justified, but are already justified. Also Paul has already explained in Romans seven that believers in Christ will struggle with sin as long as they are in this body. So to be in the flesh is to be unregenerate. Again in Romans eight here, Paul will declare that those that are in the flesh cannot please God.

What is Paul talking about then when he contrasts walking in the flesh with walking in the Spirit? I believe as many other commentators believe that Paul is contrasting the works of the law with being justified by the Spirit. In other words there is therefore now no condemnation in those who are not seeking to make them selves righteous by law works, but who are seeking their righteousness by grace through faith in Christ. In Romans 4:1-2 Paul asks this: “What shall we say then that Abraham our father, as pertaining to the flesh, hath found? For if Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory; but not before God.” See here how walking in the flesh doesn’t necessarily mean that someone wasn’t trying to live a holy life, but instead depicts someone who is trying to be righteous by the works of the law. Another example is Galatians 3:3 “Are ye so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh?” Paul is rebuking the Galatians for going back to law works and this is described as trying to work out a righteousness in them selves which is described by the word flesh. Robert Haldane states: “In this passage the word flesh cannot be taken for wicked works, any more than in the fourth chapter of the Romans, just quoted. It must be understood in the sense of working for life, or self-justification, in opposition to the way of salvation according to the Gospel. The Apostle’s main object, in the whole of that Epistle, is to reclaim the Galatian churches from the error of mixing ceremonial observances, or any works of law, with the faith of Christ, and thus walking according to the flesh, and not according to the Spirit. ‘Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing. For I testify again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from (the doctrine of) grace.” [21]

Again Philippians 3:3 Paul states: “For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh.” This example and many others can be used to show that the word flesh doesn’t always mean wicked works. Also since Paul has been arguing through this entire epistle that we are not justified by the works of the law but by faith in Christ, then I believe when he concludes his arguments from the first seven chapters, here in verse one of chapter eight, he is not speaking of someone who is living an ungodly life when he uses the word flesh, but is depicting someone who is trying to become righteous through their own works. Therefore Paul is saying, “There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who is not trying to make them selves righteous through the flesh, but who has been regenerated by the Spirit.

This interpretation is in contrast to what many say today. They will read Romans eight here and teach that those that are not under condemnation are those who are not committing sin by not walking in the flesh, but again I say that this doctrine destroys the whole doctrine of justification by faith because it teaches that in order to be righteous you must do something besides being in Christ.

Let me add a little note here: Many when interpreting scripture interpret scripture with the same definition of a word that is given in the English Bible. In other words when they see the word “world,” they will define it the same way every time. The word “world” carries seven different definitions through out scripture. John 1:10 alone has the word “world” three times and all three times it has a different definition. In Romans Paul has used the word “law” in six different ways or with six different definitions. So it is here with the word “flesh.” The word “flesh” is almost always in the negative, but the scriptures use it in the positive to. In Ezekiel11:19and 36:26 the word flesh is used as a synonym for being regenerated or born again. Ezekiel says: “And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh:”

So you see that the word “flesh” does not always mean to walk in wicked works. But Paul uses it many times in his epistles to speak of someone who isn’t righteous through imputation, but instead those who are trying to make them selves righteous through their own works in the flesh. Paul contrasts the regenerate with the unregenerate. Those who walk in the spirit are regenerated. Those who walk in the flesh are the unregenerate.

This comes from a “Commentary on Romans” by Hershel Lee Harvell Jr.


20)  This comes from Robert Haldane’s Introduction on Romans Chapter 8 found in the Master Christian Library Version 8 put out by Ages Software Copyrighted 2000-2003.

21) This comes from Robert Haldane’s comment on Romans Chapter 8 verse 4 found in the Master Christian Library Version 8 put out by Ages Software Copyrighted 2000-2003.


Imputed Righteousness

February 15, 2011 11 comments

The scripture calls a man blessed whose sins have been forgiven and whose sins are covered. We find this in Romans 4 wherein Paul is demonstrating from the life of Abraham, how a man is not justified before God through his own legal obedience. Paul states in Romans 4:1


Rom 4:1 What shall we say then that Abraham our father, as pertaining to the flesh, hath found?


Some have stated that the word ‘flesh’ refers to Abraham’s descendants because Paul used the words ‘our father’. They read this as such, “What did Abraham our father find according to the flesh?” The Jews would answer, “Why he founded a nation, wherein we are descendants and have privileges with God because we are connected to him and the promises.”

Yet in this scripture we do not see a connection between the words ‘our father’ and the word ‘flesh.’ But we conclude that Paul is asking the question of what did Abraham find according to the legal obedience of circumcising himself in the flesh. This captures the whole theme of the chapter because Paul goes on to show that Abraham was not justified by his legal obedience or works of obedience, because if he were he could glory before God. But instead Abraham is justified before God because of his faith in God. Righteousness is ‘counted’ or ‘imputed’ unto Abraham by faith.

Yet Paul does not end there, but instead asks the question of whether this blessedness, of being declared righteous with God, comes only on the circumcised or does it not come on the uncircumcised also? Paul explains that Abraham was declared just before God before he was circumcised. He does this to show that imputed righteousness could also be given to those who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had being yet uncircumcised. For the promise that Abraham would be the heir of the world was not to Abraham or his seed through the law, but through the righteousness of faith.

Paul also demonstrates how Abraham was declared righteous before God, when he staggered not at the promises of God, when God promised to give him a son in his old age. Paul concludes that these things were not written for Abraham alone, but were also written for all those who will receive imputed righteousness, upon placing their faith in God who raised Jesus from the dead.

Paul plainly declares that Jesus was delivered for our offenses and raised again for our justification. In other words Jesus died for us. He was our substitute upon the cross. He took our sins and transgressions upon himself so that we would not stand before God’s tribunal guilty. Yet it didn’t just end there, but God raised Jesus from the dead in order to show that he had accepted Christ obedience, both in his life and death, on our behalf.

Therefore being declared righteous before God does not come as the Jews or the Roman Catholics declare, through our own works of righteousness, but instead comes when we place our faith in the atoning work of Christ that he did on our behalf. I will conclude with one of the greatest statements that Paul made when discussing these matters.

Romans 5:1 Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:


Written by Hershel Lee Harvell Jr.